تصنيف مكتبة الكونغرس

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نظام تصنيف مكتب الكونغرس من أنظمة التصنيف المكتبية The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U.S. and several other countriesقالب:Which?. It is not to be confused with the Library of Congress Subject Headings or Library of Congress Control Number. Most public libraries and small academic libraries continue to use the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). [بحاجة لمصدر] The classification was originally developed by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by Cutter Expansive Classification, and the DDC, and was specially designed for the special purposes of the Library of Congress. The new system replaced a fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time of Putnam's departure from his post in 1939, all the classes except K (Law) and parts of B (Philosophy and Religion) were well developed. It has been criticized as lacking a sound theoretical basis; many of the classification decisions were driven by the particular practical needs of that library, rather than epistemological considerations. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is essentially enumerative in nature. It provides a guide to the books actually in the library, not a classification of the world. The National Library of Medicine classification system (NLM) uses the classification scheme's unused letters W and QSQZ. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC, eschewing LCC's R (Medicine). Others prefer to use the LCC scheme's QP-QR schedules and include Medicine R.

محتويات

النظام

Java programming books in the QA subclass.
Letter Subject area
A General Works
B Philosophy, Psychology, and Religion
C Auxiliary Sciences of History
D General and Old World History
E History of America
F History of the United States and British, Dutch, French, and Latin America
G Geography, Anthropology, and Recreation
H Social Sciences
J Political Science
K Law
L Education
M Music
N Fine Arts
P Language and Literature
Q Science
R Medicine
S Agriculture
T Technology
U Military Science
V Naval Science
Z Bibliography, Library Science, and General Information Resources

Class A - General Works

Class B - Philosophy, Psychology, Religion

Class C - Auxiliary Sciences of History (General)

Class D - World History (except American History)

Class E and F - American History

Class F - Local History of the United States and British, Dutch, French, and Latin America

Class G - Geography, Anthropology, Recreation

Class H - Social Sciences

Class J - Political Science

Class K - Law

  • Subclass K - Law in general. Comparative and uniform law. Jurisprudence
  • Subclass KB - Religious law in general. Comparative religious law. Jurisprudence
  • Subclass KBM - Jewish law
  • Subclass KBP - Islamic law
  • Subclass KBR - History of canon law
  • Subclass KBU - Law of the Roman Catholic Church. The Holy See
  • Subclasses - KD-KDK United Kingdom and Ireland
  • Subclass KDZ - America. North America
  • Subclass KE - Canada
  • Subclass KF - United States
  • Subclass KG - Latin America - Mexico and Central America - West Indies. Caribbean area
  • Subclass KH - South America
  • Subclasses KJ-KKZ - Europe
  • Subclasses KL-KWX - Asia and Eurasia, Africa, Pacific Area, and Antarctica
  • Subclass KZ - Law of nations

Class L - Education

  • Subclass L - Education (General)
  • Subclass LA - History of education
  • Subclass LB - Theory and practice of education
  • Subclass LC - Special aspects of education
  • Subclass LD - Individual institutions - United States
  • Subclass LE - Individual institutions - America (except United States)
  • Subclass LF - Individual institutions - Europe
  • Subclass LG - Individual institutions - Asia, Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Australia, New Zealand, Pacific islands
  • Subclass LH - College and school magazines and papers
  • Subclass LJ - Student fraternities and societies, United States
  • Subclass LT - Textbooks

Class M - Music

  • Subclass M - Music
  • Subclass ML - Literature on music
  • Subclass MT - Instruction and study

Class N - Fine arts

Class P - Language and Literature

Class Q - Science

Class R - Medicine

  • Subclass R - Medicine (General)
  • Subclass RA - Public aspects of medicine
  • Subclass RB - Pathology
  • Subclass RC - Internal medicine
  • Subclass RD - Surgery
  • Subclass RE - Ophthalmology
  • Subclass RF - Otorhinolaryngology
  • Subclass RG - Gynecology and obstetrics
  • Subclass RJ - Pediatrics
  • Subclass RK - Dentistry
  • Subclass RL - Dermatology
  • Subclass RM - Therapeutics. Pharmacology
  • Subclass RS - Pharmacy and materia medica
  • Subclass RT - Nursing
  • Subclass RV - Botanic, Thomsonian, and eclectic medicine
  • Subclass RX - Homeopathy
  • Subclass RZ - Other systems of medicine

Class S - Agriculture

  • Subclass S - Agriculture (General)
  • Subclass SB - Plant culture
  • Subclass SD - Forestry
  • Subclass SF - Animal culture
  • Subclass SH - Aquaculture. Fisheries. Angling
  • Subclass SK - Hunting sports

Class T - Technology

  • Subclass T - Technology (General)
  • Subclass TA - Engineering (General). Civil engineering
  • Subclass TC - Hydraulic engineering. Ocean engineering
  • Subclass TD - Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
  • Subclass TE - Highway engineering. Roads and pavements
  • Subclass TF - Railroad engineering and operation
  • Subclass TG - Bridge engineering
  • Subclass TH - Building construction
  • Subclass TJ - Mechanical engineering and machinery
  • Subclass TK - Electrical engineering. Electronics. Nuclear engineering
  • Subclass TL - Motor vehicles. Aeronautics. Astronautics
  • Subclass TN - Mining engineering. Metallurgy
  • Subclass TP - Chemical technology
  • Subclass TR - Photography
  • Subclass TS - Manufactures
  • Subclass TT - Handicrafts. Arts and crafts
  • Subclass TX - Home economics

Class U - Military Science

  • Subclass U - Military science (General)
  • Subclass UA - Armies: Organization, distribution, military situation
  • Subclass UB - Military administration
  • Subclass UC - Maintenance and transportation
  • Subclass UD - Infantry
  • Subclass UE - Cavalry. Armor
  • Subclass UF - Artillery
  • Subclass UG - Military engineering. Air forces
  • Subclass UH - Other services

Class V - Naval Science

  • Subclass V - Naval science (General)
  • Subclass VA - Navies: Organization, distribution, naval situation
  • Subclass VB - Naval administration
  • Subclass VC - Naval maintenance
  • Subclass VD - Naval seamen
  • Subclass VE - Marines
  • Subclass VF - Naval ordnance
  • Subclass VG - Minor services of navies
  • Subclass VK - Navigation. Merchant marine
  • Subclass VM - Naval architecture. Shipbuilding. Marine engineering

Class Z - Bibliography, Library Science

  • Subclass Z - Books (General). Writing. Paleography. Book industries and trade. Libraries. Bibliography
  • Subclass ZA - Information resources (General)

See also

قالب:Wikisource

References

External links